Info

The Pharmacist Answers Podcast

Have a question for the pharmacist? Get your answers here! Clear explanations about complicated medical topics that anyone can understand. Disclaimer: The information contained in this blog and related podcast are not to be taken as medical advice, they are for informational and educational purposes only. If you resemble anything that is mentioned in this blog or related podcast, contact your doctor. The information contained in this blog and related podcasts is the opinion of the author and does not relfect the views of her employer, Walgreens. If you want to know what Walgreens thinks, ask Walgreens!
RSS Feed Subscribe in iTunes
The Pharmacist Answers Podcast
2017
June
May
April
March
February
January


2016
December
November
October
September
August
July
June
May
April
March
February
January


2015
December
November
October
September
August
July


All Episodes
Archives
Now displaying: 2016
Dec 12, 2016

Episode 73 - Sugar for Brain

Sugar in your blood = glucose
Your body prefers glucose over any other sugar out there.

-ose = sugar suffix

GlucOSE
FructOSE - fruit sugar
SucrOSE - table sugar
SucralOSE - Splenda

Your body can turn any of these other sugars in to glucose.  It can actually turn other carbohydrates, and even non-sugar molecules into glucose if it really needs to.  This all happens in your liver...

If you were in a long-term starvation or malnutrition situation, your body would circulate non-glucose energy sources to try to get energy, since the process of making glucose can be relatively slow.  This is because your body would prefer to live than die.

The brain is a picky eater, and refuses to utilize non-glucose sources of energy.  This is because your brain works A LOT!  And it doesn't have time to use inefficient sources of energy.  Therefore, it will hog the glucose from the rest of your body.

Your skeletal muscles use glucose to do work.  This is why people with diabetes have to be extra cautious when they exercise.

Extra glucose gets saved for those times when you're not eating.  It gets put in a really long chain called glycogen.  But getting the glucose back from the glycogen can be relatively slow.

Recovering from an episode of low blood sugar takes time and requires rest (so you're not burning through the fuel as fast as you replenish it).  But it can also be emotionally stressful because you may be required to eat "unhealthy" amounts of sugary or carb-heavy foods to get back to normal.

Glucose has a very complex metabolism cycle - the Krebs cycle.
One intermediate is glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) - there is a genetic mutation where a protein for this step doesn't do it's job very well.  If this step gets delayed or clogged up, then there is a detour metabolism step that leads to triglyceride production, when then leads to fat storage.  *womp womp*  (note: triglycerides are useful in the right amounts for cell repair)  This is also why eating large amounts of sugary plus fatty foods can lead to quick weight gain.
The end result of this cycle is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).  It is super energetic when a phosphate piece is removed.  It's like the body's dynamite.  This is how a sugar high works - all the sugar leads to all the dynamite exploding at once, but then it takes a while for it to get replenished, and that's why you crash after a sugar-high.

To immediately recover from low blood sugar, you need simple sugar (orange juice, regular soda, sugar-full hard candy, glucose tabs or paste or gel).  To continue to recover, you need carbs plus something that will help it not absorb so fast (i.e. protein, healthy fats).

If you ever look at the underside of your tongue, you can see the blood vessels really clearly because they're really close to the surface.  So if someone is unconscious due to low blood sugar, you can use a glucose tablet or gel under their tongue and it will absorb into the blood stream.  This is also how you can absorb sugar quickly from sugar-full gum.

Low blood sugar can lead to emotional fluctuations (aka crabby and grouchy) and short-term memory loss (and not just because you passed out).

Support us on Patreon

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Dec 5, 2016

Brain lesion = a group of brain cells that look different from surrounding cells on a brain scan

Dark lesions - an area where the brain cells are missing or an area where signal is not firing (damaged cells)
Light lesions - an area where the signals are firing at the wrong times (like a shorted out wire). Seizure - when the brain fires the electricity at the wrong time.

A lesion in the Parietal lobe could affect how the body translates sensations (i.e. pain).  These lesions are usually caused by injury or stroke.

If there is a lesion in the optical lobe of the brain (the area that "sees" what your eyes are looking at), then the signals from the eyes may not come through, and therefore the parietal cannot help map what you were looking at once it's not there anymore.

Sensory seizures - feeling things on you or touching you that aren't really there. (unsure if this is related to the auras that come before migraines).  No medication necessary.

Extinction phenomenon:  thinking that a sensation stopped before it really did.  You body can't translate two messages of the same type at the same time.  Like when you try to locate the same place on each side of your body (i.e. making pigtails even).

Dyslexia:  can be related to written language, spoken language, or any other message being translated as language

Dysphasia or Aphasia:  mixed up or missing words

Dyscalculia:  it's hard to math.  Difficulty estimating distances, spacial mapping, and time passage.  Dana White of A Slob Comes Clean talks about TPAD (Time Passage Awareness Disorder)

Apraxia:  unable plan what you want your body to do in order to make your body do it.  The deeper the path the more "natural"  the action is.
Muscle memory is just an extremely well-developed motor path, so that you can even not do that action for a while, and when you do it again, you don't have to "relearn" it.
If this is caused by a stroke, therapy can help try and re-route the information.
Apraxia can affect gross motor movements (large movements with your body) - aka global apraxia, or it can affect speech motor planning.

Gerstmann Syndrome: no motor path to write, or math, or to feel and use your fingers as separate digits.  Also involves a left-right mix up.  In adults, it's the results of a stroke.  In kids, they have not a clue.  Therapy can help kids get past the motor issues, but not the mathing issues.

Constructional apraxia:  know how blocks should fit together, but the brain can't make their body build it.
Dressing apraxia: know how clothes should be worn and where it goes, but the brain can't make the body dress itself.  This shows up in dementia and Alzheimer's a lot. 

Amorphosynthesis - your brain is not aware of some part of your body.  Usually a symptom after as stroke.
Another symptom of a stroke is when a person is unaware of one-half of their visual field.  So they will only write on one half of the paper (the half they can see) or read only one half of the page of a book.

Anosognosia - a person is not aware that they have a disorder, disease, or disability.   This is not just denial.  The area of their brain that would recognize "I'm sick" or "I'm hurt" doesn't work.

Support us on Patreon

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Nov 28, 2016

We talked to Emily Olson of Whole Life Wellness.

Takeaway point:  Talk to the people at the practice at which you are wanting to start receiving care.  If the doctor is not available for a direct interview, the office manager may be able to answer questions regarding the practitioners and their style of communicating with patients and their approach to care.

You can contact Emily at WholeLifeWellness.co (CO not COM) - it is under construction.
You can also reach her and find out information about the Whole Foods Nutrition Challenge on her Facebook page:  facebook.com/wholelifewellness3.  
***The next challenge starts January 9, 2017!***

***Time Sensitive****
She's offering some AWESOME specials--good until November 30th!
Here are the details (but be sure to watch the video for further explanations!):
*One-on-one 6-month coaching program: $584.00 (a 41% discount from $990.00--in honor of my 41st birthday!)
*The 'It's About Time! Wellness for Work' 60-Day course--a nitty-gritty and encouraging course focusing on being your best self for your best work and vocation (starting on Dec 5th): 194.00
*'Consistency 'Til Christmas'--a 25-day engaging group accountability experience--focusing on water, steps, veggies, and sleep--in order to stay healthy and focused during the holiday season (starting on Dec 1): $25
Contact her at: https://www.facebook.com/wholelifewellness3

Last but not least - The 7-Day Whole Food Challenge - sign up for FREE!!!

Support us on Patreon

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Nov 22, 2016

Parietal Lobe - sits in the top of your head

Responsible for translating: touch, temperature, and pain
So does it tickle? Or hurt?  How does it hurt - throbbing, stabbing, sharp, dull?
The way your body translates temperature is based on the relative temperature to the body part that is being touched.

Proprioception - ability to know where you are in space relative to the other things around you

That awkward moment  when you think the toilet is higher or closer that it really is and you almost fall.

Hand-eye coordination - being able to see something that is moving and make your body to interact with it.

Two-point discrimination - the body's ability to tell if it's being touched by one thing or two separate things.  Different parts of your body have different levels of sensitivity.  Large body parts have a larger distance than small body parts (fingers and tongue have the closest discrimination distance due to the number of sensors).

Graphesthesia = writing feelings = being able to correctly translate letters or shapes drawn on your body without you looking.

When someone says "I can see it in my head" - it's the area that can recall visual memories.  Remembering the last place you saw your keys or visualizing driving directions based on the landmarks you pass (which is the only way we give directions in the South).  So, when someone closes their eyes to try and remember something, they're trying to deactivate their eyes and activate the parietal lobe.

Being able to identify a 3D object with your hands by touch only, and without your eyes.  This is also how Braille works.  Dot patterns created to represent letters.

Good info here and here about Braille activates the brain.

Support us on Patreon

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Nov 15, 2016

Recap: Frontal Lobe
- Motor cortex - voluntary muscle movements, including the muscles that control speech
- Language translation
- Prefrontal cortex - personality, judgment

The main chemical, or neurotransmitter, that functions in this part of your brain is dopamine.

Dopamine is being studied in how it related to dementia and Alzheimer's.  It's affects are already known in Parkinson's disease.  Some newer studies are looking at dopamine's affect on addiction.  This is because dopamine is part of your brain's reward system.

So think about when you get a Facebook notification.... dopamine is released in your brain, and your brain really likes how dopamine makes it feel.  Feels good!  So you're brain will help you pay more attention to the things that will get you more dopamine (that's why a 5 second Facebook glance can turn into 30 minutes).  This also means that dopamine is involved in your attention span.  

Dopamine is also involved in short-term memory, especially in complex or cascading tasks (where you have to remember a thing from Step A to complete Step B) in your prefrontal cortex.

#RealTalk:  Cynthia doesn't have that many Facebook friends!

Diseases that take away short-term memory:  Dementia (general or Parkinson's-related), Alzheimers.

To form memories, your brain has to access the same information over and over again (like a smooth, speedy highway).  A road only traveled once, is not easy to travel again, especially if there's a long period of time between trips down that road.  So in diseases that involve brain cell death, there becomes less and less routes to take to the same memory.

Thus, the older memories are the last to go because they have the most access routes.

Dopamine is responsible for your planning and motivation mechanisms.

If I make a plan and carry out the plan, the reward of dopamine is the outcome.

The problem is that it requires increasing levels of "excitement" for your brain to receive the same level of dopamine as the very first time.  This is why people with devastating addictions end up on a downward spiral of ruin.

They've discovered a genetic component that affects the shape of the dopamine receptors.

scanned-image

These cells in your brain don't actually touch each other.  The terminals spit out dopamine, and it floats in the space and hopefully comes in contact with the next cell's dendrites.  The dendrites have dopamine-shaped keyholes that the dopamine should fit in the keyholes perfectly.  But they have discovered that a genetic component affects the keyhole shapes, and this make be a root cause for schizophrenia and attention deficits.

If you think about it, the classic symptoms of schizophrenia - paranoia, anxiety, hallucinations, split personalities - most things affected in your prefrontal cortex.  So if the dopamine receptors are "broken" in this area, you can see how there could be a dysfunction.  And this is produced at the genetic level.

Strokes or brain injury in this area of your brain can affect personality.

Back in the day.... there was a guy named Pheneas Gage who worked on the railroad.  An accident involving dynamite and a railroad spike, let to a major head injury and an altered personality!  Read more details here!

These parts of your brain don't grow back!

There is also a type of epilepsy (seizures).  Seizures are a misfire or a short in the electrical signals of the brain.  Seizures in the frontal lobe can possibly affect memory (epilepsy-related amnesia).  Must be diagnosed by a neurologist.

Some issues related to the speech motor area of the brain (Broca's area).  Stuttering (clinically diagnosed) is a misfire in the motor planning part of speech.  Aphasia (loss of words) - part of you brain knows the word but you can't seem to get it out of your mouth.  Strokes in this area can cause some strange affects in the loss of words.

We rub our forehead when we're trying to remember something because that's where our short-term memory is.

Support us on Patreon

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 31, 2016

**Many apologies for the screaming baby***

Frontal Lobe - in the front of the brain (behind your forehead)

This is the area that contains your personality.  A stroke or brain injury or damage can alter someone’s personality drastically.

We take personality tests, but they are too basic to take such a complex part of you and put it in a quadrant or on a spectrum.

This area of the brain is also well-connected to the limbic system (emotional center), and if those connections are broken through stroke or injury, then that causes changes too.

Motor cortex - voluntary muscle movements - how you choose to move your body.

Prefrontal cortex - personality, complex cognitive behavior, decision-making, social behavior, judgment (not existential judgement - but simple things like opposites) - if this gets damaged in adults (so less chance to relearn things as kids would), they don’t sense the dread of the consequences of doing “bad” behaviors, thus they can live lifestyles that include sex, drugs, and crime.

This area of the brain doesn’t reach full development until almost 30 years old —> Insert rant here!!

Broca’s area (confirmed: he was French) - speech, language production, translation (not just audible language, but any type of symbol or gesture that would have meaning)

- stuttering, aphasia

During the Heroic Era of medicine (not a well-named era) - they invented the Lobotomy - mainly trying to find a treatment for mental illnesses.  Society was ok with doctors experimenting on criminals in prison and patients who were put in asylums by their families. It did cause changes in the people, thus they claimed the “cured” them.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 24, 2016

Review: disease like Alzheimer's and dementia are grey matter issues - the creation and translation of messages are interrupted or dysfunctional.  White matter is like the power cords that are responsible for sending the signals.

White matter diseases

- Hypomylenation - cells are created with a low amount of myelin; premature, chromosome-linked defects

Cell Biology review:  animal cells have a membrane and a nucleus that holds all the DNA, and cytoplasm, and then all the organelles that have different jobs - just like a self-contained factory.  Some systems can be dysfunctional and the cell still live and replicate.

- Dysmylenation - neurodystrophy (a huge list based on what’s broken)

      - Lysosomes - stores enzymes for breakdown

     - Perioxosomes - stores enzymes for energy metabolism

     - Mitochondrial - dysfunction of energy usage

     - Amino acid metabolism dysfunction

- Demylenation

     - Inflammatory - Multiple Sclerosis - autoimmune disease.  The brain wants the body to do something but the message doesn't make it to the body, so the body doesn't move or has very jerky, irregular movements.  Tests for antibodies can identify MS.  Available treatment is mostly immune suppressants.

*Huntington's is a genetic disease that presents in the same way.  It has a very sad prognosis and presents in females starting between the ages of 30 and 50.  Thus they have already planned a life and possibly had kids who now may have the same disease.  Genetic testing can identify Huntington's

     - Viral - PML (Progressive Mulitfocal Leukoencephalopathy); J-virus a typical virus that may mutate and go dormant in the brain.  If the immune system is lowered drastically - due to suppression or immunodeficiency diseases, this virus will wake up and attack the myelin of the neurons.

     - Acquired metabolism demyleniation (being exposed to chemicals) - “Chasing the Dragon” - refers to a technique used to keep melted pills from burning in a container (usually a spoon) while it's being heated by a flame from underneath and the vapors are inhaled.  Drug of choice: heroin.  **DON'T DO DRUGS**

     - Hypoxic ischemic - loss of oxygen.  Examples:  asphyxiation, drowning, ischemic stroke.

     - Mechanical - compression due to injury or swelling

*Migraines are not a white matter issue, they are a brain chemistry issue.  Learn more on the Headache episode

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 17, 2016

Review:  
Grey matter - neuron cell bodies that create and translate messages
White matter - myelin-covered axons that transmits the messages across the brain

Conditions that affect grey matter:
1. Dementia - memory starts to fail with age (due to the death of brain cells).  Newest formed memories get lost first (Last In First Out), and it progresses until the vital functions are lost.
2. Alzheimer's - similar results of dementia, different cause.
3. Bipolar - there is not a clear explanation, but the grey matter of someone who exhibits bipolar symptoms looks different on a brain scan from the grey matter of someone who doesn't.
4. Amnesia - can be because the cells holding the information or memories have been injured or killed due to injury, or because the wires that would send the messages for recall have been damaged.  This can be caused by head injuries.  In traumatic experiences, amnesia is a self-preserving mechanism.
5. Lewy- body dementia - a type of dementia that manifests in Parkinson's disease.  As a neuron cell dies, it fills up with protein and blocks message transmission.  These large clumps of protein-filled cells will show on a brain scan.  These buildups can lead to hallucinations - visual or auditory.  Also, affects memories, just like typical dementia does.
6. Schizophrenia - stereotypical symptoms can be caused by changes in grey matter, but not the same as protein build-up.

Your brain cells do not reproduce and replenish the way other cells (like your skin) do.  We do know that the brain can create new cells, but it is a very slow process that requires very specific conditions to be present.  But the new growth of brain cells is not fast enough to slow or reverse a disease.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 12, 2016

All brains are wrinkly.  Wrinkles in your brain are a good thing.  Wrinkles are biology’s way of maximizing surface area while conserving space.

The plateaus of the brain are called gyri (or a gyrus).

The smaller, sunken in wrinkles are called sulci (or a sulcus).  Sunken in sulci - that’s how I remember it.

The larger canyons of the brain are called fissures.  These are the groves that separate the hemispheres and the lobes of the brain.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 3, 2016

Your brain is made of cells.  Those cells are called neurons.  Neurons transmit signals in the form of electricity (aka .positive and negative charges).  One end of a neuron will build a signal or charge, and once it reaches a certain threshold, then a signal is send down the axons.

Most of the cells in your body touch and transmit signals and pass chemicals through their membranes.  Neurons do not touch.  The terminals of one will get really really close to the dendrites of another.

They're really good at the telephone game - mostly because the body tries to minimize the number of neurons involved in passing a signal.

Axons are coated in myelin.  Myelin insulates the axon that helps the signal being sent travel faster, and prevents it from getting lost to something else touching it.  You want the signal to have to same strength when it reaches its destination as it did when it left its source.

Parts of a neuron
Dendrites: receives signals from previous neuron
Cell body: contains the nucleus and creates and translates signals
Axon: the "wire" that transmits signals
Terminals: sends signals to the next neuron

Grey matter - cell bodies, dendrites, and terminals
White matter - axons wrapped in myelin

Grey matter - information storage and translation
White matter - information transmission

Brain: grey matter is on the outside, white matter is on the inside
Spinal cord:  grey matter is on the inside, white matter is on the outside.

PS.  Grey?  Gray?  IDK!!!

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Oct 3, 2016

Meningitis = inflammation of meninges

Generalized symptoms:  fever, headache, stiff neck, light sensitivity, confusion, lethargy, 

4 types of infectious meningitis

1. bacterial - we have a vaccine for that! 3-7 days; spreads in close communities (like college dorms).  Spreads through prolonged contact.  Confirmed through spinal tap and cerebrospinal fluid culture

2. viral - most common type; can be caused by lots of viruses: enterovirus, mumps, measles, flu, west nile.  7-10 days.  This is why I believe in vaccines!

3. Fungal - not contagious; most common in patient with suppressed immune systems or secondary from surgery.

4. Parasitic - Rare yet fatal.  Amoeba enters through nose from warm contaminated fresh water sources or pool, even hot springs (warm up to 115* F).  Only 31 cases in the 10 years between 2002 and 2012.  Destroys brain tissue ~ 5 days. 

 

Non-infectious causes:  Surgery, injury, lupus, cancer

 

The most important thing is that all of this be monitored by a doctor - ALWAYS!!

 

2 quick tests for meningitis: Kernig’s sign https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Evx48zcKFDA; Brudzinski’s sign https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rN-R7-hh5x4 

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 22, 2016

For someone with diabetes, everything they do in life affects their blood sugar.  They could be eating 100% right and taking their medicine 100% right, and something would cause the blood sugar to be off.

Exercise:  It is well-accepted that exercise is good for you.  Your body will store extra sugar as a large molecule called Glycogen.  Imagine a line of kindergarteners hold hands trying to make it through the museum, Glycogen is just a bunch of glucoses holding hands.  When you’re not eating, your body will snip off a glucose at a time as it needs it.  The liver stores and directs the glycogen most of the time.  Your skeletal muscles also store some glycogen, because when they do work (i.e. exercise), it takes too long for the liver to snip off glucose from glycogen and send it to them.  After exercise, the body replenishes the muscles’ glycogen stores.  This can cause the blood sugar level to drop, for someone with diabetes, this can be dangerous because they can’t “untake” medicine.  When protein and carbohydrates are eaten together, before or after exercise, the blood sugar changes can happen more slowly - the nutrient absorption in the gut causes a “traffic jam” of sorts.

Sleep:  Certain metabolism processes happen only when you sleep.    Some people with diabetes wake up with really high blood sugar, others wake up with really low blood sugar.  Sleep is not restful and restorative if the blood sugar is out of balance, but also if sleep is not restful, then blood sugar levels can be jacked up - not just in the morning, but for the rest of the day.

Stress:  The hormones that are triggered by stress - even something as basic as adrenaline, can cause the body to respond to insulin and glucose differently.  

Sickness:  Your body is going to responds things differently when the immune system is in high gear - that includes insulin, glucose, the food you eat.  An infection requires an antibiotic because you are infected with a bacteria.  Bacteria are living organisms.  Living organisms consume energy sources and produce waste.  This can affect the sugar levels in your bloodstream.  You’re immune system doing work also burns sugar.

Allergies:  Works about the same as sickness.  Your immune system is actively trying to protect you from something (allergens) and so it responds differently.

Smoking:  If you smoke, STOP!  The nicotine and other chemicals make you more resistant to insulin.  This is most troublesome in Type 2 Diabetes.

Hormones:  Especially for women, hormone cycles can affect sensitivity to insulin differently during different times of the month.  Adrenaline can override almost any response to any previous hormone response.

Life is hard.  Life with diabetes is super hard.  Diabetes and other chronic diseases are silent and it doesn’t show on the outside at first sight.  Extend grace, extend compassion.

The Nashville chapter of JDRF is having their annual One Walk on September 24th. Friend of the show and previous guest, Rachel Mayo has been #T1D for over 10 years and she is passionate about the cutting edge research and support JDRF provides for people and their families. Her goal is for her team to raise $5000, you can contribute here:http://www2.jdrf.org/site/TR?team_id=206888&fr_id=6333&pg=team

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 19, 2016

Review:  Your brain is held inside your skull by a tri-layer membrane called the meninges.  These membranes and all the other structures in your brain are nourished by blood vessels, and different circumstances will make these vessels at risk of rupturing.

*ALL BRAIN BLEEDS REQUIRE MEDICAL ATTENTION!* 

Brain bleeds are classified based on the membrane they are closest to.  They can be caused by physiological malformations, stroke or aneurism from age or disease, or trauma.

From the outside in:

Extracranial bleed: (extra = external; cranial = cranium = skull bones), between your skin and your skull.  Doesn’t affect your brain, there is more room for it to stretch.

Intracranial bleed: (intra = internal); bleeds inside the skull increase the intracranial pressure and requires medical intervention.  Main goal is to reduce intracranial pressure so brain cells aren’t pressed on and damaged.

     - Epidural (yep, that place they put the anesthesia for women having babies, except it’s in the spinal cord): Epi = above, Dural = Dura mater, that topmost, durable layer of the meninges.  Between the skull and the dura mater.

     -Subdural: Sub = under; blood leaks in between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater, which are normally in close contact, so the separation causes pain.

     - Subarachnoid: under the arachnoid mater. Normally, under the arachnoid layer is the subarachnoid space which contain cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).  People who have had a subarachnoid bleed and survived, describe hearing a “thunderclap”.  Officially called a “thunderclap headache”.  It’s like they can hear the blood vessel pop and experience extreme pain all over their head all at once.  Described as “the worst headache of my entire life”.  Because the pia mater under the subarachnoid space lays directly on top of the brain cells and follows all the grooves and wrinkles of the brain, this type of bleed will require emergent attention and possible surgery.

*ALL BRAIN BLEEDS REQUIRE MEDICAL ATTENTION!* 

 Intracerebral (cerebral = cerebrum, the main part of your brain)

     - Intraparenchymal: Parenchyma = organ tissue, means it’s right up against the brain cells

     - Intraventricular: Ventricles = pockets inside the brain that make, hold, and reabsorb CSF.  The deepest part of the brain.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 14, 2016

People with chronic diseases don’t get holidays or vacations from their medication.

 

4 ways medication can affect blood sugar:

1. Type of medication:  the goal of the medication that people with diabetes take is to lower blood sugar - either by increasing insulin sensitivity, encouraging the pancreas to make more insulin, or to replace insulin that’s not naturally made anymore.  Metformin is like insulin’s wingman; it helps make the cells ready for insulin when it comes by.  So usually these medications (including insulin) will lower blood sugar no matter if you eat or not.

2. Timing of medication:  Most of the medications should not be taken if a meal is going to be skipped.

3. Dose of medication:  the more sugar you eat, the more insulin you need.  The higher the blood sugar level, the higher the dose is needed.  It needs to stay proportional.  Any form of sugar you eat gets turns into glucose, the complexity of the sugar determines how fast it raises your blood sugar.  Even diabetics are at risk for hypoglycemia.  If one little thing gets out of whack, it can cause a drop in blood sugar and require a “rescue”.  Favorite hypoglycemia rescue “go to” is orange juice (lots of simple sugars).  Regular soda can be used, as well as hard candy or glucose tablets.  NO DIET SODA - artificial sweeteners do not affect sugar enough.  High blood sugar can cause coma, lower blood sugar can cause coma.  Bottom line: Coma is bad.

4. Interaction with medication:  Fluoroquinolones can causes changes in blood sugar control and require a person to check their levels and adjust their medicines more often.  Steroids can also cause blood sugar to be more uncontrolled - this is true for acute (short term) use or chronic (long term - like autoimmune diseases) use.  Beta blockers used for blood pressure control can mask the symptoms of low blood sugar because the symptoms are very similar.  Symptoms of low blood pressure:  tiredness, weakness, dizziness, shakiness, inability to focus.  The only way to know which one you’re experiencing is to check your blood sugar and your blood pressure.

 

The Nashville chapter of JDRF is having their annual One Walk on September 24th. Friend of the show and previous guest, Rachel Mayo has been #T1D for over 10 years and she is passionate about the cutting edge research and support JDRF provides for people and their families. Her goal is for her team to raise $5000, you can contribute here:http://www2.jdrf.org/site/TR?team_id=206888&fr_id=6333&pg=team

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 12, 2016

Meninges = triple-layer membrane that helps hold your brain in place.

 

The inside of your skull bones have many boney processes protruding out.  The meninges surround the brain and provide a cushioning layer around it, and anchor to these processes.  This allows the brain to be suspended inside the skull and not touch the top, sides, or bottom.

 

This setup is partly contributes to concussions.  When the head experiences a large enough impact, the suspended brain crashes into the bone of the skull.

 

Meninges encase your brain and spinal cord to protect them.

 

Three layers:

- Dura mater (mah-ter, not may-ter): durable and thick, contains large blood vessels.  This is the layer that anchors directly to the skull bones.  Membrane that divides hemispheres, separates a few lobes, and coats glands near the brain.

- Arachnoid mater (yes, like spiders): wispy like spider webs - thin & transparent. Directly in contact with Dura mater, but has cellular pillars that connect it to the Pia mater.  The cerebrospinal fluid flows around these pillars. Also overs the outside of the part of the brain as a whole.

- Pia mater - delicate, contains the capillaries that nourish the brain.  Is in direct contact with brain cells - following all the contours and wrinkles of the brain.

 

Subarachnoid space - hold cerebrospinal fluid (a closed fluid system that insulates and cushions the brain and spinal cord).  Doesn’t mix with blood or lymph system.

 

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 8, 2016

Your blood sugar affects how tired you are, your productivity, and your moods.  This is 1000x more true for those with diabetes.

 

Hypoglycemia = Low blood sugar

 

3 main energy sources in your food: Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein

 

Carbohydrates are some complex form of sugar that your body can turn into glucose very quickly.  Glucose is the main form of sugar that your body uses for energy.  Because your liver is very efficient in this process, you can get a blood sugar spike (sugar high) and then you crash after it’s over.  Insulin is the key to the door to let the glucose in your cells.

 

Fats can be turned into sugar by your liver is your glucose stores are depleted.  So, this can affect your blood sugar levels, although it’s less of an impact that carbohydrates.  Insulin has another job - fat storage.  If there’s a lot of fat, the insulin is being used up storing fat rather than allowing glucose into cells.

 

Proteins are promoted as a counterbalance to the carbs.  It causes a traffic jam in the absorption and metabolism processes that allows the sugars into the blood stream much slower.  The liver does have a process called gluconeogenesis (the creation of new sugar) where it can make sugar out of protein, but it’s a last resort.

 

There is some evidence that shows caffeine causes temporary insulin resistance while it’s in the body.  You still get an “energized” feeling b/c caffeine increases the heart rate but the energy usage is not very efficient because the glucose is not being used well.

 

Alcohol can drop your blood sugar initially, especially if it’s consumed on an empty stomach.  When the liver is steadily detoxing the alcohol out of your bloodstream, the replenishment of the glucose supply slows down.  This contributes to what make you feel sleepy after drinking alcohol.  On the flip side, it will increase your blood sugar because 1) alcohol is usually mixed in a sugary drink (i.e. cocktails) and 2) alcohol is distilled from “high carb” sources (grapes, wheat, barley, rye, corn, etc).

 

Any changes to eating habits need to be exactly that - new habits.  I can’t just be a program that you do once without permanent change.  If you’re cutting out all or most of one of the 3 main energy sources, you have to make sure you keep up with your caloric needs.

 

1 g of Fat = 9 calories

1 g of Carb = 4 calories

1 g of Protein = 3 calories

 

Calories are calories when it comes it energy, so the other nutrients from your foods are a more important to consider when choosing what to eat.

 

There are lots of things your body would have to adjust to when changing eating habits (digestion adjustments, for one) and 30 days may not be enough to get it “normalized”.

 

The Nashville chapter of JDRF is having their annual One Walk on September 24th. Friend of the show and previous guest, Rachel Mayo has been #T1D for over 10 years and she is passionate about the cutting edge research and support JDRF provides for people and their families. Her goal is for her team to raise $5000, you can contribute here: 

Your blood sugar affects how tired you are, your productivity, and your moods.  This is 1000x more true for those with diabetes.

 

Hypoglycemia = Low blood sugar

 

3 main energy sources in your food: Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein

 

Carbohydrates are some complex form of sugar that your body can turn into glucose very quickly.  Glucose is the main form of sugar that your body uses for energy.  Because your liver is very efficient in this process, you can get a blood sugar spike (sugar high) and then you crash after it’s over.  Insulin is the key to the door to let the glucose in your cells.

 

Fats can be turned into sugar by your liver is your glucose stores are depleted.  So, this can affect your blood sugar levels, although it’s less of an impact that carbohydrates.  Insulin has another job - fat storage.  If there’s a lot of fat, the insulin is being used up storing fat rather than allowing glucose into cells.

 

Proteins are promoted as a counterbalance to the carbs.  It causes a traffic jam in the absorption and metabolism processes that allows the sugars into the blood stream much slower.  The liver does have a process called gluconeogenesis (the creation of new sugar) where it can make sugar out of protein, but it’s a last resort.

 

There is some evidence that shows caffeine causes temporary insulin resistance while it’s in the body.  You still get an “energized” feeling b/c caffeine increases the heart rate but the energy usage is not very efficient because the glucose is not being used well.

 

Alcohol can drop your blood sugar initially, especially if it’s consumed on an empty stomach.  When the liver is steadily detoxing the alcohol out of your bloodstream, the replenishment of the glucose supply slows down.  This contributes to what make you feel sleepy after drinking alcohol.  On the flip side, it will increase your blood sugar because 1) alcohol is usually mixed in a sugary drink (i.e. cocktails) and 2) alcohol is distilled from “high carb” sources (grapes, wheat, barley, rye, corn, etc).

 

Any changes to eating habits need to be exactly that - new habits.  I can’t just be a program that you do once without permanent change.  If you’re cutting out all or most of one of the 3 main energy sources, you have to make sure you keep up with your caloric needs.

 

1 g of Fat = 9 calories

1 g of Carb = 4 calories

1 g of Protein = 3 calories

 

Calories are calories when it comes it energy, so the other nutrients from your foods are a more important to consider when choosing what to eat.

 

There are lots of things your body would have to adjust to when changing eating habits (digestion adjustments, for one) and 30 days may not be enough to get it “normalized”.

 

The Nashville chapter of JDRF is having their annual One Walk on September 24th. Friend of the show and previous guest, Rachel Mayo has been #T1D for over 10 years and she is passionate about the cutting edge research and support JDRF provides for people and their families. Her goal is for her team to raise $5000, you can contribute here: http://www2.jdrf.org/site/TR?team_id=206888&fr_id=6333&pg=team 

 

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Sep 5, 2016

Headaches vary in their severity.  If you’ve had more than one headache in your life, you know this to be true.  This variation is dependent on the type of headache, but also a person’s body chemistry.

5 Types of Headaches

1. Tension headache: come on if you’re stressed or having to hold your body in an uncomfortable or unnatural position.  Neck and shoulder tension can cause the headache to hurt in the back of your head (and can radiate to your eyes due to the location of the optic area of the brain).  Intense facial expressions (including crying) can hurt in the front or sides of your head.  Obsessive personality types are more prone to tension headaches.  OTC pain meds help turn off pain receptors.  Using a warm compress to loosen and soften muscles and then doing stretches can relax the muscles and relieve tension.  Some people find that ice packs can help because the cold decreases the inflammation in the area that is tense and painful.

2. Cluster headaches: happen in groups or cycles. Mild to moderate pain.  One-sided headache accompanied by water eye, sinus pressure, and runny nose on that same side.  Don’t be fooled into thinking that it’s a sinus headache.  The pain from cluster headaches will make you restless - “If I can just stay busy, I won’t think about the pain and will be ok”.  This type of headache can be treated with OTC medications.

3. Sinus headache: your sinuses (tunnels in your head and face bones) are lined with mucous membranes.  They can become inflamed if they are fighting off a virus (cold), infected by bacteria (sinus infection), or from overproduction due to a severe allergy attach.  The inflammation, in itself, can cause pain.  But if they swell shut and the air inside can’t even out pressure with the outside (just like your ears when you change altitude), it can cause pain. Antihistamines and decongestants can help, and again, OTC pain relievers.

4. Rebound headache: if you use a medication for a prolonged period of time, your body chemistry will adjust to it always being there.  So, if you stop taking it, your body notices the gap and responds by sending pain signals.  This happens with headache medications as well as other pain medications.  Can be an indication of medication overuse. 

5. Migraine: must meet a specific set of criteria to be diagnosed.  And because they are most affected by brain chemistry, OTC medications rarely work, thus require prescription medications.

     Diagnosis criteria

     - 5 or more debilitating episodes

     - an episode lasts 4-72 hrs

     - At least 2 of the following:

          + one-sided

          + throbbing (feel the pulse or heartbeat)

          + Moderate to severe

          + Interferes or prohibits daily activity

          + Daily activity makes it worse

          +Sensitivity to light and/or sound

     - With or without aura (visual disturbances - halo, floaters; hand numbness)

          If your brain knows something is going on, it may preemptively redirect blood and nutrients to the vial organs and thus your extremities get neglected.

Still not 100% sure what causes migraines. Neurologists can do brain scans to look for patterns in electrical signals and misfirings. So far, we know it has something to do with neurotransmitters.  Hormones can affect the brain chemistry so strongly, that each menstrual cycle can come with migraine.  Pregnancy hormones can cause migraines - either temporarily or permanently.  Serotonin, which is your “happy” chemical, is produced when your eyes are stimulated by sunlight.  If it gets out of balance, the brain responds.  Triptans (a class of medications used to treat migraines) affect serotonin levels to try and rebalance it.  Even though OTC and home remedies don’t work for migraines.  Some people do get relief with ice packs.  Again, the ice helps reduce any inflammation, but it can also just numb the nerves so they don’t feel as much pain.  **Ice must be used conservatively because too much ice contact can damage the skin**  Other people find that warm compresses hurts because the muscles around the painful area get tense and the warmth can help them relax.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Aug 29, 2016

Your skull is made up of 22 bones.  2/3 of it consists of cranial bones, even though there are only 8 of them.  The other 1/3 is your face.

Two main goals of the cranial bones:  protects your brain, acts as an anchor for neck and face muscles.

The 8 bones are connected together by sutures (because they look like they've been sewn together) - and it is a tight fuse that doesn't allow anything through.

The frontal bone - at your forehead, it's on the FRONT.  When babies are born, this bone is actually in 2 pieces to allow baby's head to smush during delivery.  It fuses together so tightly, that it becomes one bone by eight years old.

Fontanels = soft spots that babies have that allows for rapid brain and head growth.  Babies have 6 total soft spots.  All of them close up by 3 months old except the big one in the front.

 

Steve's story:  His daughter's soft spot would sink in and she would cry.  His mother-in-law would fill her mouth with water and then suck the baby's soft spot out.  *DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME!!*

 

Sunken in soft spots can be a sign of dehydration because there is lots of blood vessels in that area.

 

The bones in your face and head have cavities and tunnels (called sinuses) that allow nerves and blood vessels to travel through, as well as keep air pressure stable.

 

Question 1: Skull fracture? Can possibly happen on a suture where two bones separate, but more often an actual crack in one bone.

 

Question 2: Is brain bleeding always dangerous? Always potentially fatal?  Yes, because your brain is closed in. Brain bleeds are classified into levels, and part of it has to do with how deep in the brain it happens, and how much pressure it puts on the things around it.  Blood vessels are found all throughout your brain, and the blood that flows through them has its designated space.  If the blood comes out of the blood vessels, then it starts crowding out the things around it (which can be important parts of your brain).  Sometimes people may have a brain bleed and they will remove part of the skull bone to relieve the pressure.

Story #2: Orbital hemorrhage caused vision loss and feeling loss in lower extremities.  If the nerve signal is interrupted temporarily, then the functions of those parts will return.  If the nerves are damaged permanently, then those functions will be lost permanently.  This was caused by blunt force trauma. As long as the rest of you is healthy, and the injury is fully healed, I would not expect it to happen again out of the blue.

Where does the bottom of your brain sit?  Your cranium has a floor.  One of the bones that make up the floor is called the Sphenoid bone (my favorite bone).

You can reach it and wiggle it and help with sinus pressure and drainage (it's a neat trick!)  It works by creating tiny pressure differences in your sinuses.

The outside of your skull bones are rather smooth.  The inside of those bones are bumpy and jagged because it gives places for the membranes to anchor and keep the brain buoyant and centered.

 

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

 

Aug 22, 2016

Review:  Epidermis = top layer of skin.  Living cells divide and then add in proteins that causes cells to harden as they die and become and protective layer to keep out water and dirt and critters.  Some of those proteins give your skin its color (melanin) and they help block and reflect UV light from the sun to keep the living cells from being damaged.

Mutations = if UV light damages the cells' DNA, then when the cells divide and replicate, they copy the "error" and reproduce an abnormal cell.  If certain mutations cause the cells to die, others cause the cells to be weak, but others cause the cells to become cancer.

3 types of skin cancer

- Basal cell carcinoma - most common of these 3, more common in people with fair skin.  Skin growth is flesh colored, can look like skin tags.  Caused when a basal cell gets mutated and starts to grow.
- Squamous cell carcinoma - more common in people with fair skin. Scaly patches or sores that open, start to heal but reopen and never heal.  Caused when a keratinocyte (living, dividing skin cell) gets mutated in the middle of replicating.
- Melanoma - Moles are just a place where a lot of melanocytes gather in one place, but sudden moles or dark spots can be the tip of a bad iceberg.  This is the deadliest type of skin cancer.  Caused by mutations in the melanocytes.

Some benign (harmless) skin characteristics can resemble skin cancer, thus it's easy to overlook them in the early stages.

Tool for early detection of melanoma

A - Asymmetry - you can't fold it in half and all the edges match
B - Board - jaggedy, sharp boarders
C - Color - uneven color
D - Diameter - > 6mm (bigger than the eraser of a #2 pencil)
E - Evolving - changes shape, size, or color in a short amount of time (< 1 month)

This is why the National Skin Cancer Foundation recommends you do a monthly skin scan to check skin characteristics for changes or new ones.

Early detection is the number one step to improve survival of all cancers.

Precancer = Actinic Keratosis - dry and flakey places in the skin, can be the precursor of Squamous Cell Carcinoma.  Usually shows up after 40 years old.

Cancer is not just a disease that happens to the aged, but as you age, the probability of you being exposed to something that could mutate your cells goes up.

 

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Aug 15, 2016

Most common skin issues:
1. Dry skin - usually due to your skin not having enough of its own natural oils (probably strips from soaps, cleansers, chemicals).  Moisturizing lotions and creams are "greasy" to try and match the oil of your skin.  The oil make the skin waterproof - keeps water out, but also keeps water in (prevents evaporation)
* Eczema - dry skin with an immune/inflammation component.  The deeper layers of the skin will release inflammation chemicals that irritate the other cells in the area and lead to redness, pain, and swelling.  It's common for kids to have eczema but then grow out of it, but other conditions can cause eczema to flair (in my case, pregnancy)
2. Rash - one of the most ambiguous symptoms to try and figure out what the root cause is.  Rashes can be round or splotchy, symmetrical or asymmetrical, raised or flat, big or small.  Rashes are caused by some type of inflammation process (most commonly histamines).  Rashes are a sign that your body has been offended by something - either from the inside and then the chemicals reach the skin to cause rash, or from the outside that touched your skin and caused chemicals to be released.
*Hives - a very distinctive rash with raised, irregular borders that may be red, but can also maintain their "flesh color".  Most commonly involve histamines, thus antihistamines (like benadryl can help them go away).  Can possibly be triggered by stress (the stress hormones cause a chain reaction of chemical release which may lead to hives).

Viral exanthem - "exit rash"; a rash that kids will get when their body has finally beat a virus.  Some start at the top of the body and then moves down to their feet.  Others start on the torso or core and then move out to the extremities.  Antihistamines do not help it, but they rarely hurt or itch or bother the kid in any way.

Blackheads - there are different pores in your skin (sweat glands, oil glands, hair follicles).  The oil on your face helps to trap bacteria and dirt that could get deeper in your skin and possibly hurt you.  The goal of cleaning your face, is to cleanse off the "dirty" oil, but not all the oil (because the result is either dry skin or over-production).  So the dirty oil plus the shedding dead skin cells can clog up any of these pores.  Blackheads are specifically when hair follicles are clogged - and they look black b/c the melanin proteins that get built into hair can be seen.  Generally small blackheads and whiteheads are not painful, unless a lot of bacteria are involved and they begin to fester.
*Cystic acne is when a larger area that involves multiple pore or hair follicles get clogged and infected with bacteria and then the spot can become swollen and painful (and unsightly).
Hormones regulate the oil production, that's why puberty increases acne, stress increases acne, all of the transitions surrounding pregnancy can increase acne.  As long as you have hormones, you're going to have a risk of acne.
Also, working in really dirty environments can increase the amount of dirt that could clog up pores.

Ringworm = tinea corporis (there's no worm involved, it's a fungus).  Classic circular rash that is red and flakey and possibly flesh-colored in the middle.
If it's on your head (tinea capitis = cradle cap).  If it's in your groin (tinea cruris = jock itch).  If it's on your feet (tinea pedis = athlete's foot).
Tinea vesicolor = the fungus causes the skin to lose pigment (this is NOT vitiligo, which is the death of melanocytes and they don't grow back, Michael Jackson).

Candida is the yeast that is a part of your natural skin flora, but can lead to rash if it gets out of balance.

If there is anything on your skin that bothers you, see your doctor!

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Aug 8, 2016

Two products to protect your skin from sun exposure:

- Sunscreen - filters the sunlight *like a screen on a window*; made up of organic compounds (like chemistry, not vegetables) that absorb UVA and/or UVB rays that reach your skin.  These are the products labeled with SPF numbers.
- Sunblock - used to be opaque because it is supposed to completely block any sunlight from getting to your skin. *Think Screech from Saved By The Bell*.  Full of reflective particles to bounce the sunlight away from your body.  The particles have been micronized by technology so it is transparent to your eyes, but not to the UV light from the sun.

 

Lesson on Light:  The light comes from the sun.  There's visible light (ROYGBV) and that light bounces off of things and as it goes in your eyes, that's how you can see things.  Along with the light we see, there is ultraviolet light (waves of light that are shorter and more energetic that the violet color light).  There are 3 types of UV light - 1 is absorbed and reflected by the atmosphere so it never makes it to us.  Then there is UVA and UVB.  UVA is more energetic and is most responsible for causing cell mutations that lead to cancer.  UVB is less energetic and is most responsible for causing your skin to tan.

UV rays travel through these layers of the skin and stimulate the living and dividing cells to divide more and create more melanin.  Reminder: melanin is your skin's natural skin protectant because it will absorb UV rays in the higher layers to help prevent it from reaching the dividing cells.

 

SPF math (Sun Protection Factor)
Step 1: find out how long you can be out in the sun without protection before your skin starts turning red or burning (example: 15 minutes)
Step 2: Multiply that "unprotected time" by the SPF number on the bottle (SPF 15) to get your "protected time" (15 x 15 = 225 minutes = 3 hr 45 min**)
**This is only if you don't sweat and don't get wet.  But it's very hard to be in the sun and NOT sweat.  Plus your natural skin oils dilute it the longer it stays on the skin.

 

The Skin Cancer Foundation recommends reapplying sunscreen every 2 hours no matter what.  They also recommend that you use SPF 15 (or higher) sunscreen, that blocks UVA and UVB, every day, especially on your face, all year round.  The daily UV exposure, if you're unprotected, is what they suspect leads to a greater chance of skin cancer.

They also recommend UV-blocking sunglasses.

Clothes and hats are the best way to protect your skin from sun exposure.

Stay inside during peak hours (10 am - 4 pm) of radiation (less atmosphere to block and deflect sunlight).

Do a monthly, head-to-toe, skin scan to check for new or changing moles, freckles, and skin tags (or get a friend to help).  EARLY DETECTION!!

Have your doctor check your skin once a year.

Subscribe on iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TunIn Radio

Like the Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Aug 1, 2016

Vitamin D is made by your skin.

Lots of foods are fortified with Vitamin D.

Vitamin D2 is plant-based.  Plants make vitamin D then you eat them and absorb it.  This is also the type of Vitamin D that is added to other foods.

Vitamin D3 is animal-based.  You absorb very little Vitamin D from animal food sources.  This is the type that your skin makes.

Review:
The membranes of your cells are made up of cholesterol.  It allows them to stay fluid and flexible, and it allows diffusion of some nutrients.
UV-B rays come down from the sun and travel through the top layer of your skin. Those rays interact with the cholesterol in the skin cells and cause it to break away and it starts a changing process as that loose molecule makes it way to the bloodstream.  *Think the Hulk transformation*.  By the time it reaches the bloodstream, it has become D3 (~ 12 hour long process).

Vitamin D3 = Calcitriol (tri = 3)
Vitamin D2 = Calcidiol (di = 2)

The news will tell you that Vitamin D is needed to prevent the Winter Blues or that it's good for your bones.

Vitamin D has 2 jobs to help with your bone health.  Vitamin D tells your intestines to make calcium-carrying and phosphorus-carrying proteins, so when you eat foods that contain calcium or phosphorus, the cells of the small intestines will have the ability to transport these molecules into the bloodstream.  Then in your periosteum (the membrane that covers your bones), Vitamin D works with parathyroid hormone to tell the periosteum cells to make the same kinds of proteins to get the calcium out of the blood and into the bone-building process.

Vitamin D also has an important role in your immune system.  It plays a part in cell differentiation.  Vitamin D helps an immune system cell know which type of cell it needs to specialize as (B-cell, T-cell, macrophage) to do the optimum job  based on the type of invader that has entered your body.

While sun exposure stimulates Vitamin D production, there has to be a balance to avoid skin aging and risks of cancer.  Taking Vitamin D supplements can be a safer alternative.

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like our Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Jul 25, 2016

Your skin is the largest organ of your body.

It has 3 jobs: Protection, Regulation, Sensation

Natural complexions are being viewed as more beautiful than a "tan".  

3 Layers
- Epidermis (above skin) - waterproof, gives you your color, the layer we see
*Dermis-Epidermis junction - a protein layer containing collagen and elastin to give skin flexibility and stretchability
- Dermis - where your glands, hair follicles, and nerves are
- Hypodermis - (below skin) - houses adipose tissue for insulation, and blood vessels

skin layers

The Epidermis is made up of several separate layers based on what is happening in the cell's lifetime.

The basement membrane sits right on top of the Dermis-Epidermis junction, made up of fibrous proteins to be a solid foundation.

epidermis

Basal Layer - Keratinocytes (makes Keratin) and Melanocytes (makes Melanin) - stem cells.
Spinous Layer - Cells are actively dividing and getting squished together
Granular Layer - Cells start making the proteins (keratin or melanin) that they are coded to make and it fills up all the intracellular space; the organelles of the cells get crowded out
Lucid Layer (Clear) - Keratinized cells are clear; Melanin-filled cells are colored. Cells are officially dead.  Cells become coated in a hydrophobic (afraid of water) oil.
Hard Layer  - cells are tightly packed together and dry; the layer we can touch.

These cells are being continuously produced and shed off and replenished because the skin takes a lot of abuse.

UV light from sun or tanning beds (heaven forbid!) stimulates melanocytes to divide faster and create more melanin (because melanin is reflective and keeps UV rays away from the important cells).  This is how a tan is created.  But during times of huge exposure, like tanning beds, there's not enough melanin to keep all the UV rays out so those rays can wreak havoc on the collagen and elastin proteins.  This is why over-tanned skin ages faster.

Hydrating makes sure that the living and dividing cells are plump and as healthy as possible so when they move to the next layer, they are well nourished.

Protection: keeps dirt and bacteria out; protections from UV radiation
Regulation: releases sweat to cool the body's temp; subtly moves blood vessel closer or farther away from the surface to either cool the warm blood (like after exercise) or keep it warm (like in the winter).
Sensations: allows you to feel things that touch you or come close to you.

I can't seem to find any free footage of the original episode (Season 1, Episode 3) without having to sign up for a free streaming service.  Netflix it, if you can.  Here is the link to the "revisited" clip I found on YouTube.  GoldFinger

Subscribe: iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like our Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Jul 18, 2016

Alopecia - hair falls out in the same area all at one time.  Kind of like crop circles.

 

3 Stages of the Hair Follicle life cycle

- Anagen phase - active phase, cells are multiplying, hair is growing

- Catagen phase - resting phase, "cat nap"

- Telogen phase - shedding phase

 

Hair thickness is determined by 2 things: the density of hair follicles (how many follicles in one area) and how large a single hair follicle is (thick vs fine hair).

male patterned baldness - receding hairline from front to back, and the loss of the hair on the crown of the head.

Female patterned baldness - the overall thinning of the hair.

Hirsutism - females get male-patterned balding due to testosterone imbalance

 

Why does all your hair fall out after you have a baby??

Telogen effluvium - a mass exodus of hair follicles

This can also happen when the body goes through extreme shock or trauma.

There is a condition called post-partum alopecia - this is temporary, and hair grows back afterwards.

Dandruff - caused by the inflammation of the scalp.  Inflammation causes skin to be dry and itchy.  The topmost skin layer releases in larger amounts, thus the pieces are visible, opposed to when the skin naturally sheds, it's microscopic so you don't usually see the dead skin cells you lose.

Tinea capitis - ringworm on your scalp, aka cradle cap.  Usually requires an antifungal to get rid of it.

Hair can actively grow for up to 6 years.

Since hair is dead cells, hair hangs onto the DNA and it can be used to identify people (missing persons) or for paternity tests (who's your daddy)?

Dying and perming affect the proteins that give it color or keep it connected.

If someone has had prolonged exposure to toxin (carbon monoxide, heavy metals, smoking), the hair shows markers of that damage from the toxins.  It can also hang on to markers from being exposed to illicit drugs.  It's like a timeline of what you've been exposed to.

Subscribe on iTunes, Stitcher, GooglePlay, TuneIn Radio

Like our Facebook page

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Jul 11, 2016

isclaimer:  if you live in a modernized country, the food that you eat will give you more than enough of the vitamins you need, because you have access to a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, plus tons of food products are fortified with vitamins.  So rarely is someone deficient in a whole bunch of vitamins all at once.

hair bulb

5 Vitamins 

  1. Biotin (Vitamin H - antiquated; Vitamin B-7) - a cofactor that works with your enzymes to help transport carbon dioxide - which is a waste product in your body.  Carbon dioxide is created in fatty acid production, amino acid metabolism, and gluconeogenesis (making glucose out of things that aren't glucose).  Peanuts is a huge source of biotin.  Your natural gut flora make biotin for you!!  So apparently good for your whole body, not just your hair.
  2. Iron - responsible for helping your red blood cells to carry around oxygen.  This is most likely the only nutrient in this list that someone would need to truly supplement, mainly because iron deficiency can be caused by several things, some of which are genetic.  People with prolonged anemia have dull hair, skin, and nails.  Again, good for your whole body.
  3. Vitamin C - responsible for helping collagen production.  Most directly related to hair, skin, and nails.  Collagen allows cells to be stretchy and elastic and more flexible against abuse.  It also helps your digestive tract absorb iron (callback!).
  4. Vitamin E - is an oil-based vitamin and an antioxidant.  Lots of health fads scream at you about free radicals.  Free radicals are molecules that are waste products from different processes that end up with a non-neutral charge (so either positive charge or negative charge).  So if you remember chemistry, they prefer to be neutral, so free radicals want to steal charges to neutralize, and can sometimes steal it from your DNA and lead to major cell damage.  An antioxidant is a molecule that finds an oxidized free radical and donates a charge so that it's neutral again (and the antioxidant is able to cope better with losing an electron or two without becoming radical itself).  Vitamin E focuses on the free radicals from fatty acid processes.  Again, good for your whole body, not just your hair.
  5. Omega-3-Fatty acid - an oil, a fatty acid chain that goes into the production of your skin's natural moisture.  Your skin needs its natural oil to trap up dirt and bacteria, as well as keeping the moisture from deeper inside your body from evaporating out.  So each hair follicle has an oil gland with it to keep the hair moisturized.  The new information about the importance of your hair's natural oil has encouraged the "no 'poo" movement.  This is more directly related to your hair, but a lot of other places in your body benefit from O3FA's.

Subscribe!
iTunes
Stitcher
GooglePlay
TuneIn Radio 

Like us on Facebook

"Radio Martini" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)  Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

1 2 Next »